1991 Ceasefire Agreement Iraq

“Usually we remain pessimistic until our plane takes off from the ground,” Captain Craig Hendrix of Valdosta, Georgia, told the AP, “but it strengthens our mood to know that there is a ceasefire agreement.” The United States told the UN Security Council on Thursday night of the official reasons for the invasion of Iraq, saying Baghdad had broken a ceasefire resolution adopted after the 1991 Gulf War. United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, adopted on 3 April 1991 pursuant to resolutions 660, 661, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 669, 670, 674, 677, 678 (all of 1990) and 686 (1991), adopted a comprehensive resolution setting out the conditions to be met by Iraq after the lost Gulf War. Resolution 687 was adopted after a very long meeting with 12 votes to one vote against (Cuba) with two abstentions from Ecuador and Yemen. [1] Iraq accepted the provisions of the resolution on April 6, 1991. [2] Resolution 687 offers Iraq a ceasefire in return, inter alia, in exchange for its obligation to dispose of all weapons of mass destruction and its agreement to pay compensation to countries, companies or individuals that suffered as a result of its invasion of Kuwait on August 2. An informal ceasefire has been in effect since 28 February. It noted that resolution 687, adopted in April 1991, imposed disarmament obligations on Iraq, were the terms of the ceasefire signed at the end of the Gulf War, during which another United States-led coalition expelled troops from Baghdad from Kuwait. As the Iraqi resistance was on the verge of collapse, Bush declared a ceasefire on February 28, ending the Gulf War. Under the terms of the peace that Hussein later accepted, Iraq would recognize Kuwait`s sovereignty and get rid of all its weapons of mass destruction (including nuclear, biological and chemical weapons). In total, an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Iraqi soldiers were killed, compared to only 300 coalition soldiers. In his letter to Anbari, Noterdaeme referred to the “official communication of Iraq`s irrevocable and unconditional acceptance of resolution 687 (1991)”. UNITED NATIONS, APRIL 6 — Iraq today agreed to a firm UN Security Council resolution to formally end the Gulf War in exchange for President Saddam Hussein`s approval to abandon all weapons of mass destruction and pay damages for the seven-month occupation of Kuwait. Following Iraq`s adoption of all paragraphs of the resolution, a formal ceasefire between Iraq and Kuwait and cooperation between Member States and Kuwait began.

Although the long-running Iran-Iraq war ended in August 1988 with a UNITED Nations-brokered CEASEFIRE, the two states had not yet begun negotiations on a permanent peace treaty by mid-1990. When their foreign ministers met in Geneva in July, the prospects for peace suddenly looked rosy, as it seemed that Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein was ready to resolve this conflict and return the territories his forces had long occupied. Two weeks later, however, Hussein gave a speech accusing neighboring Kuwait of siphoning crude oil from the Al-Rumaylah oil fields along their shared border. He insisted that Kuwait and Saudi Arabia cancel $30 billion of Iraq`s foreign debt, accusing them of conspiring to keep oil prices low in order to serve Western oil buyers. Iraqi President Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion and occupation of neighboring Kuwait in early August 1990. Alarmed by these actions, Arab powers such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt have called on the United States and other Western countries to intervene. Hussein resisted calls from the United Nations Security Council to withdraw from Kuwait in mid-January 1991, and the Gulf War began with a massive US-led air offensive that became known as Operation Desert Storm. After 42 days of relentless attacks by the allied coalition in the air and on the ground, US President George H.W. Bush said on September 28 that he would like to see the United States. ==External links==By this time, most Iraqi forces in Kuwait had surrendered or fled. Although the Gulf War was initially seen as an unqualified success for the international coalition, the simmering conflict in the troubled region led to a second Gulf War – known as the Iraq War – that began in 2003. In the early morning of January 17, 1991, a massive US-led air offensive hit Iraqi air defenses and quickly moved to its communication networks, weapons factories, oil refineries, etc.

The coalition`s efforts, known as Operation Desert Storm, have benefited from the latest military technologies, including stealth bombers, cruise missiles, so-called “smart” bombs with laser guidance systems and infrared night bomb equipment. The Iraqi Air Force was destroyed prematurely or decided to leave the fight under relentless attack, the purpose of which was to win the war in the air and minimize as much as possible the fighting on the ground. Perez de Cuellar pointed out that his estimate of the cost, which rises from $83 million to about $40 million after six months, is based on the assumption that infantry and pioneer units can be withdrawn by then. On the other side of the table were two Iraqi lieutenant generals and another Iraqi officer sent by President Hussein to negotiate the terms of the ceasefire. The meeting could be the beginning of efforts to involve Jordan in the Middle East peace process. Jordan could play a crucial role in bringing together a group of Palestinians acceptable to Israelis for a peace conference. In comparison, the Iraqis were escorted to the airfield by Allied soldiers in open American Jeep-type vehicles. The Allied commander saw entire blocks of commercial buildings and telecommunications facilities that had been set on fire and left in ruins. U.S. analysts said Iraq appeared to have regained control of the country after revolts broke out after the Gulf War ended and a temporary ceasefire was established in late February. On one side of the large rectangular table was the general and his Saudi counterpart, General Khaled bin Sultan. But Bush said he would not come up with a comprehensive plan — not yet.

“I`m not leaving aside the idea of a bold plan, but we need to work our way to this point,” he said. Britain and Australia, two other countries in the US-led coalition, wrote similar and shorter letters to the 15-member council. None of the letters mentioned “regime change,” a target of the invasion, but had never been approved in a Council resolution. He added that Britain intended to consult council members on preparing a separate resolution to address the Kurdish issue “if necessary.” The resolution would call for the creation of UN-monitored safe havens for Kurds. The most important part of the resolution was the last paragraph 34, which called for “[the Security Council] […] [d]ecides. to take all other measures necessary for the implementation of this resolution and the safeguarding of peace and security in the region. This statement has been widely interpreted as “obey or we will force you to do so by any means necessary.” This text was used by the United States to justify the bombing of Iraq in 1996, the bombing of Iraq in 1998 and the invasion of Iraq in 2003 on the grounds that Iraq refused to comply with various United Nations resolutions aimed at maintaining peace and security in the Persian Gulf region. Allied officials acknowledged that the setting and staging of today`s meeting was aimed at raising Iraqi awareness of the extent of their defeat. If it is necessary to keep them longer, the long-term costs will be significantly higher, he said. On the 29th. In November 1990, the UN Security Council approved the use of “all necessary means” against Iraq if it did not withdraw from Kuwait by the following January 15.

In January, there were about 750,000 coalition forces preparing to fight Iraq, including 540,000 U.S. troops and smaller forces from Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet Union, Japan, Egypt and Saudi Arabia, among other nations. Iraq, for its part, had the support of Jordan (another vulnerable neighbor), Algeria, Sudan, Yemen, Tunisia and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). The protracted war between these neighboring countries in the Middle East has claimed at least half a million lives and billions of dollars in damage, but no real gain on the other side. The war, which was started in September 1980 by Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, was marked by . By mid-February, coalition forces had shifted the focus of their airstrikes to Iraqi ground forces in Kuwait and southern Iraq. A massive Allied ground offensive, Operation Desert Sabre, was launched on February 24, with troops moving from northeastern Saudi Arabia to Kuwait and southern Iraq. Over the next four days, coalition forces surrounded and defeated the Iraqis and liberated Kuwait. At the same time, U.S. forces stormed Iraq about 120 miles west of Kuwait, attacking Iraqi armored reserves from behind. Iraq`s elite Republican Guard established a defense south of al-Basra in southeastern Iraq, but most were defeated on February 27. Perez de Cuellar said the task of the observers will be to “ensure that there are no military personnel and equipment in the demilitarized zone and that no military fortifications are maintained there.” Saddam Hussein was captured by US forces on 13 December 2003 and executed on 30 December 2006 for crimes against humanity.

The U.S. would not officially withdraw from Iraq until December 2011, but one source said: “The letter is full of complaints, but it expresses no reservations about the terms of the resolution.