Agreement between Egypt and Israel

Although the conclusion of the Camp David Agreement was an important step forward, the process of translating the framework documents into a formal peace treaty proved daunting. As at the summit, Carter`s hopes for rapid progress were high, and the president hoped that a treaty text would be finalized in a few days. However, the controversy that developed between the Carter administration and the Begin administration over the duration of an agreed freeze on Israeli settlement construction was quickly followed by the government`s failure to secure support from Jordan or Saudi Arabia for the deals. Beginning in October, a series of talks broke down in Washington due to Israeli concerns about the timing of their withdrawal and Egyptian reservations about the impact of a peace treaty on its obligations to other Arab states. Other regional developments, especially the Iranian revolution, distracted the United States. Policymakers expressed Israel`s concerns about its oil supply, leading to a stalemate in the winter of 1978-1979. After Begin`s visit to the White House in early March failed to break the deadlock, Carter visited Israel on March 10. After obtaining Sadat`s consent to negotiate on behalf of Egypt, the president held three days of intensive talks with the Israelis. Following a series of compromises, in particular a US guarantee of Israel`s oil supply, omitting references to Egypt`s “special role” in Gaza and israel`s agreement to make a series of unilateral gestures towards the Palestinians, the US and Israeli delegations agreed on a treaty text on March 13. Sadat quickly accepted the agreement and the Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty was signed on September 26. ==External links==The Camp David Summit, held from September 5 to 17, 1978, was a watershed moment in the history of the Arab-Israeli dispute and in U.S. diplomacy.

Rarely has a United States the president paid as much attention to a single foreign policy issue as Carter did during the two weeks of the summit. Carter`s ambitious goals for the talks included resolving the blockade of negotiations and drafting a detailed Egyptian-Israeli peace agreement. To this end, U.S. middle east experts prepared a draft treaty text that served as the basis for negotiations and was to be revised several times during the summit. Conversations proved extremely difficult, especially when the trilateral format was impossible to maintain. Instead, Carter and Vance met individually with the Egyptian and Israeli delegations over the next twelve days. Between three months and nine months after the signing of the peace treaty, all Israeli forces will withdraw east of a line stretching from one point east of El-Arish to Ras Muhammad, the exact location of which will be determined by mutual agreement. Representatives of the group had told U.S. diplomats that they had no intention of revoking the contract. [25] The peace treaty between Egypt and Israel was signed 16 months after Egyptian President Anwar Sadat`s visit to Israel in 1977 after intense negotiations. The main features of the treaty were mutual recognition, an end to the state of war that had existed since the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, normalization of relations, and Israel`s withdrawal of its forces and civilians from the Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had captured during the 1967 Six-Day War.

Egypt has agreed to demilitarize the Sinai Peninsula. The agreement provided for the free passage of Israeli ships through the Suez Canal and the recognition of the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba as international waterways. The agreement also called for an end to Israeli military rule over the territories occupied by Israel and the creation of full autonomy for the Palestinian inhabitants of the territories, conditions that were not implemented but formed the basis of the Oslo Accords. .